The process of Glycolysis involves the breakdown of one glucose molecule to form two molecules of pyruvate. It results in the production of 4 ATP and 2 NADH molecules. However, glycolysis uses 2 ATP molecules so there is an overall net gain of 2 ATP molecules. Glycolysis has two phases, energy investment phase and energy generation phase, each of which involves 5 enzymes. The steps pf Glycolysis is shown below.
1) ATP is used in the1st and 3rd reactions of glycolysis. These are known as the first and second priming reactions. These reactions are catalysed by Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase-1.
2) ATP is generated in the 7th and 10th reactions. The process by which ATP is formed from ADP in glycolysis is known as substrate- level phosphorylation. These reactions are catalysed by phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase.
3) NADH is generated in the 6th reaction. This is where oxidation and reduction occurs. Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate was oxidized,losing hydrogen to form NADH. An addtional phosphate group was added to form 1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate. The source of this phosphate is inorganic phosphate.